The Challenge of Titanium Machining

(STL.News) Titanium alloy has very high strength. Though the density is 4.51g/cm³, which is higher than aluminum and lower than steel, copper, and nickel, the specific strength is at the top of metals.  Moreover, titanium alloy has excellent corrosion resistance and fatigue resistance, high-temperature performance, and welding performance, and has been widely used in aerospace, military, and medical industries.  When it comes to using titanium alloy as the material of a product, it attracts a lot of people’s attention.  Because titanium alloys are synonymous with high-grade metal materials.  Products made of titanium alloys are generally expensive, not only because the titanium alloy materials themselves are expensive, but also because processing titanium alloys is a very challenging task.

Physical phenomena of Ti process

The cutting force throughout the process of Titanium is simply slightly on top of the equivalent steel hardness.  However, the natural phenomenon throughout the process of Titanium alloy is way more sophisticated than that of process steel.  That brings nice difficulties to the process of titanium machining.

The thermal physical phenomenon of most Titanium alloys is extremely low.  It’s a simple fraction of steel and a simple fraction of metallic element.  During this means, the warmth generated throughout the cutting method won’t be quickly transferred to the work or quarantined by the chips, however, targeted within the cutting space.  And therefore the generated temperature is often as high as a thousand.  So the leading edge of the tool is quickly worn, broken, and fashioned as a settled edge.  The settled edge quickly seems to wear off the leading edge, causing a lot of heat within the cutting space, more shortening the machining tool exploitation life.

The warmth generated within the cutting method of Titanium alloy components destroys the surface integrity of the components at a similar time.  As a result, it reduces the geometric accuracy of the components.  And therefore the development of labor hardening happens. This reduces the fatigue strength greatly.

The physical property of Titanium is useful to the performance of components.  However, throughout the machining method, the elastic deformation of the work is a very important explanation for vibration.  The cutting force causes the “elastic” work to depart the tool and rebound.  Therefore, the friction between the tool and therefore the work is bigger than the cutting action.  The friction method conjointly generates heat, which will increase the thermal physical phenomenon of the Titanium alloy.

It’s onerous to achieve the specified dimensional accuracy once the process is thin-walled and circinates Ti alloy components.  Once the work material is pushed away by the machining tool, the native deformation of the skinny wall has exceeded the elastic vary, inflicting plastic deformation.  And therefore the material strength and hardness of the cutting purpose are improved considerably.  At this point, the machining at the originally determined cutting speed becomes too high, leading to sharp wear of the tool.

Hot is the wrongdoer for the troublesome process of Ti alloys.

Know-how for the Titanium machining

Through the understanding of Titanium alloy machining mechanism and combined with past expertise, the most method skills for process Titanium alloy are projected as below:

  1. Use positive-angle pure mathematics blades to scale back cutting force, cutting heat, and work deformation.
  2. Maintain a continuing feed rate to stop the tool from perpetually being within the feed state throughout cutting. The radial tool engagement throughout the edge ought to be a half-hour of the radius.
  3. Use hard-hitting and large-flow cutting fluid to make sure the thermal stability of the machining method and stop surface degeneration and power harm caused by excessive temperature.
  4. Keeping the leading edge sharp is because of blunt knives caused by heat accumulation and wear, which may simply cause tool failure.
  5. Build the Titanium alloy within the softest state to process the maximum amount as doable.  As a result, the hardened material is tougher to use, and warmth treatment can increase the strength of the fabric and increase the damage of the tool.
  6. Use an oversized fillet or chamfer to chop in, so as several cutting edges as doable enter the cutting.  This will cut back the cutting force and warmth at each purpose and stop native harm.  In Titanium alloy edge, the cutting speed has the best influence on the tool life among the cutting parameters, followed by the radial tool engagement (milling depth).

Unravel the matter of Titanium machining

The blade groove wear in Titanium machining is principally the native wear of the rear and front components on the depth of cut.  That is sometimes caused by the hardened layer once machined.  Once the process temperature is on top of 800°C, the chemical process and diffusion between the tool and therefore the work material are among the explanations for the formation of groove wear.  Throughout the machining method, the Titanium molecules within the work roll upfront of the blade and are welded to the sting underneath high voltage and warmth, thereby forming a settled edge.  Once peeling the settled edge from the leading edge, the inorganic compound coating of the blade is going to be quarantined.  Therefore, the process of Titanium alloy needs special blade material and pure mathematics.

Tool structure appropriate for Titanium

The focus of the Titanium process is heat.  An oversized quantity of hard-hitting cutting fluid should be sprayed on the leading edge in time and accurately to quickly eliminate heat.  The special edge cutter for Ti alloy process incorporates a distinctive structure.


Wayken has been focusing on CNC machining for many years and has a wealth of professional knowledge.  Our professional team can use different processes to adapt to processing various parts and ensure high quality.  We also have the ability of Titanium machining.  And we always aim to help every customer succeed in his new designs.  If you have any related needs, welcome to inquiry use.